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Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam was born on October 15, 1931, in Rameswaram, Tamil Nadu, India. He was the youngest of four children born to Jainulabdeen, a boat owner and imam of a local mosque, and Ashiamma, a housewife. Kalam had a humble upbringing and had to sell newspapers to add to the family’s meagre income.

Kalam was a bright and hardworking student, and he excelled in mathematics and physics. He graduated from Schwartz Higher Secondary School in Ramanathapuram in 1946, and he went on to study physics at Saint Joseph’s College, Tiruchirappalli, where he graduated in 1954. In 1955, he moved to Madras to study aerospace engineering at the Madras Institute of Technology, where he graduated in 1958.

After graduating, Kalam joined the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), where he worked on developing missiles and other weapons systems. He was instrumental in the development of India’s first nuclear-capable missile, the Shakti, and he also played a key role in the Pokhran-II nuclear tests in 1998.

In 1992, Kalam was appointed as the Scientific Adviser to the Defence Minister. In this role, he was responsible for advising the government on all matters related to defence research and development. He also served as the chairman of the Defence Research and Development Council (DRDO).

In 2002, Kalam was elected as the 11th President of India. He served as president for five years, and during his tenure, he focused on promoting science and technology, education, and economic development. He also worked to improve relations between India and other countries.

Kalam retired from the presidency in 2007, and he returned to teaching and writing. He authored several books, including “Wings of Fire” and “Ignited Minds.” He also continued to give lectures and speeches on a variety of topics, including science, technology, and education.

Kalam died on July 27, 2015, at the age of 83. He was a national icon, and his death was mourned by millions of people around the world. He is remembered as a great scientist, a visionary leader, and a man of peace.

Kalam’s life and work have inspired many people, and he is considered to be one of the most important figures in Indian history. He is a role model for young people, and he is an inspiration to all who strive to achieve their dreams.

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